The cDNA was synthesized using the iScript cDNA synthesis kit (Bio-Rad, USA). The mRNA expression level of the brain tissue was detected by qRT-PCR via iQ SYBER green I Supermix (Bio-Rad, USA) and a Bio-Rad RT-PCR instrument system. The thermocycling protocol consisted of 10 min at 95 °C, 40 cycles of 15 s at 95 °C, 30 s at 60 °C, and 20 s at 72 °C and completed with a melting curve ranging from 60°C to 95°C to facilitate distinction of specific products. A reaction with primers of Tnfa, Il1b and Il6 was performed, the glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase gene was used as a housekeeping control.
It is well known that cigarette smoke inhalation leads to emphysematous changes in the lungs of chronic smokers, and some in vivo murine studies have suggested that e-cigarette vaping may also cause emphysema. Mean linear interface assessments on lungs yielded no detection of increased airspaces in mice exposed to JUUL Mint or JUUL Mango aerosols for one or 3 months (Appendix 1—figure 4M). While the nicotine concentration in JUUL pods is quite high, it does not vary with the JUUL flavor (Omaiye et al., 2019).
While these two flavors are not available anymore, they were composed of an array of chemicals commonly found in other flavors , such that we believe that these data are most likely relevant to other vapes. The discontinuation of these flavors has been added as a limitation within the Discussion . E-cigarettes made by JUUL are different relative to prior generations of e-cigarettes. The JUUL device uses disposable pods filled with nicotinic salts instead of nicotine.
Due to the rapid evolution of vaping devices, the data on health effects of Pod devices are scarce. This study provides useful information on the inflammatory change caused by chronic JUUL aerosol inhalation. Under homeostasis conditions, the authors observed sign of inflammatory responses in the brain, the heart and the colon, while no inflammation was detected in the broncho-alveolar lavage fluid of the mice following exposures to JUUL aerosols. Also, JUUL aerosol exposures mediated airway inflammatory responses in the acute lung injury model . Further, this infection affected the inflammatory responses in the cardiac tissue.
Study authors found nicotine and other chemicals in e-cigarettes contributed to therapy resistance. According to a 2021 study published in the International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, about 40% of people who use e-cigarettes daily reported experiencing common vaping side effects. บุหรี่ไฟฟ้า Voopoo are still learning about how e-cigarettes affect health when they are used for long periods of time. It’s important to know that the aerosol (“vapor”) from an e-cigarette contains some cancer-causing chemicals, although in significantly lower amounts than in cigarette smoke. E-cigarettes do not contain tobacco, but many of them contain nicotine, which comes from tobacco. Because of this, the Food and Drug Administration classifies them as “tobacco products.”
Brain tissue harvesting
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E-cigarettes produce similar levels of particulates to tobacco cigarettes. There is “only limited evidence showing adverse respiratory and cardiovascular effects in humans”, with the authors of a 2020 review calling for more long-term studies on the subject. E-cigarettes increase the risk of asthma by 40% and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease by 50% compared to not using nicotine at all. The health risks of e-cigarettes are not known for certain, but the risk of serious adverse events is thought to be low, and e-cigarettes are likely safer than combusted tobacco products. Some people who smoke choose to try e-cigarettes to help them stop smoking.
E-cigarettes cannot be considered safe because there is no safe level for carcinogens. Due to their similarity to traditional cigarettes, e-cigarettes could play a valuable role in tobacco harm reduction. However, the public health community remains divided concerning the appropriateness of endorsing a device whose safety and efficacy for smoking cessation remain unclear.
JUUL® had the lowest mass transferred to aerosol per pod compared to the other brands, which may also contribute to the lower metal aerosol deliveries. An exception was the low, but detectable, levels of zinc in 2019 JUUL® Mint. In general, JUUL® liquid metal concentrations were overall the lowest of the liquid samples analyzed.
If pod mods or e-cigarettes are to have any benefit to public health, youths’ use and access to these products must be reduced drastically. The US Food and Drug Administration recently acted to deter the sale of pod-based e-cigarettes to underage youths both online and in retail locations. While this is an important first step, efforts to restrict marketing that targets youths, particularly on social media, and limit the availability of attractive flavors could also be effective in curtailing pod-based e-cigarette use.